The applicability of natural zeolites for the simultaneous removal
of ammonia and humic acid, two of the most encountered current
contaminants, from the surface waters was also investigated. Their
removal depends on pH value, initial concentrations of humic acid
and ammonia, temperature and contact time. The obtained results
indicated that zeolite showed best performance for simultaneous
removal of ammonia and humic acid at the pH close to that of
natural waters . The use of natural and modified zeolites has been
further investigated for the simultaneous removal of Fe and Mn ions
from underground water samples. In particular, Fe and Mn removal
levels are between 22-90% and 61-100% for natural zeolite -
clinoptilolite . The development of new and cost effective methods
to remove As from ground waterand drinking water also becomes one
of the research priorities. The occurrence of arsenic in natural
ground waters is due to geological composition of soil.
Numerous and excellent research results in the last 10 years have
shown that natural zeolites have practical use, which is confirmed
by a large number of patents, especially for the two naturally
occurring zeolite minerals: clinoptilolite and moderniteshown in.
The number of patents is substantial for both zeolite types, which
gives a clear notice that the interest of researcher in natural
zeolites is strongly encouraged by the commercial sector covering
the use in households or in industrial/large-scale processes and
You can greatly reduce the consumption of animal feed and get
organic products by adding to the diet Transcarpathian natural
Application of natural zeolites in feeding pigs helps to slow the
rate of passage of food through the digestive tract mass, resulting
in increased level of digestive juices. The use of zeolite
increases the ability of animals to use nutrients. The mineral
encourages the preservation of "healthy offspring”, provides
natural hair shine, healthy growth, strength, recovery of
protective ability of the body.
Natural zeolites have unique adsorption, molecular-screens and
catalytic properties that provide positive impact on the
physiological state of animals.
Zeolitic tuffs are capable to adsorb carbon dioxide, ammonia,
hydrogen sulfide, methane, nitrous some compounds. Passing through
the digestive tract, zeolite removes excess fluid from it, harmful
gases, endotoxins, thus preventing diarrhea.
Found that a week after the beginning of feeding zeolite the
digestive process stabilizes, increases the total acidity, peptic
activity of gastric contents, proteolytic activity and
aminolitychna pancreatic juice, intestinal absorption of calcium
Experience of the wide use of zeolites in various farms in Russia,
USA, Japan, Germany and other countries shows that the inclusion of
zeolite in the diet of animals increases the nutrients
digestibility of feed, reduce deaths, especially at early age,
prevents the appearance of dyspepsia, removes toxic and noxious
products from the organism, metabolism, prevent diseases associated
with micronutrient deficiencies.
Zeolite has extremely positive effect on diarrhea that occurs in
piglets during weaning them from sows.
Recommended use of zeolite flour of fraction 0,1-1 mm.
Dosage: zeolite flour is added to animal feed with rate of 0,3-3%
of the total weight of feed.
Basically zeolite is used to boost the immune system, normalize
metabolism, prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Zeolite in animal husbandry makes healthy offspring, to strengthen
the protective ability of the body.
Please note that zeolite flour can not be used simultaneously with
compounds that increase peristalsis, digestive and laxative
Apply zeolite flour fraction 0,1-1 mmwith concentrated feed the
a) for weaned piglets at 6-7 weeks, zeolite flour is added to feed
of the piglets at a rate 0.3% of the total mass of daily food (3
days zeolite flour is added to feed - 9-day break, etc.);
b) from 10 kg zeolite flour is added to feed of the piglets at a
rate 0.5% of the total mass of daily food;
c) upon reaching 20 kgl zeolite flour is added to feed of the
piglets at a rate of 1% of the total mass of feed, and when 40
kgare reached – it increases to 2%;
d) upon reaching by sows and boars 80 kglive weight, zeolite flour
is added to feed at the rate of 3% of the total mass of feed.
Remember to rotate: 3 days zeolite flour is added to feed pigs -
9-day break, etc. In case of constipation in piglets zeolite do not
add flour to feed.
Zeolite mineral feed additives, which are used in animal feed,
♦ to increase the nutritional value of feed for pigs;
♦ to run all the important processes of metabolism of animals to
increase the effect of consumption of nutrients that come from
♦ to improve the course of physiological processes in pigs;
♦ to strengthen the immunity of pigs, prevent common diseases;
♦ to increase the fecundity of mature individuals;
♦ to withdraw from the body of pigs radionuclides, heavy metal
salts and other harmless substances and compounds, toxic and
harmful products of metabolism;
♦ to prevent the death of the pigs;
♦ to saturate the body of pigs useful trace elements;
♦ to influence on morphological composition of blood, its redox
function, saturate it with oxygen.
Zeolite in animal husbandry
Zeolite is used as mineral feed supplement to boost the immune
system, to normalize metabolism, to prevent gastro -intestinal
Zeolite improves fertility and increases survival of healthy
offspring, provides a natural wool luster, healthy growth,
strength, renovation of the protective abilities of the organism.
The usage of natural zeolite in animal and poultry nutrition
contributes slowing the rate of passage of food mass through the
digestive tract, and thereby increases the impact of digestive
juices on them. The usage of natural zeolite increases the ability
of animals to use the nutrients of the diet.
One of the positive effects of zeolite is the increase of the
vitality of animals and birds.
Experimentally proved that the feeding with natural zeolite helps
to reduce the number of gastrointestinal diseases, which may be
stipulated by a reduction of bacterial infections in the intestine.
Also, the natural zeolite feeding, apparently, promotes the
excretion of metabolic products and toxic substances introduced to
The use of zeolite as a supplement in animal feeding can:
• improve the nutritional properties of food;
• positively affect the digestive processes in animals organisms,
to improve the efficiency of nutrients absorption;
• improve the physiological condition of animals;
• increase the viability of animals, to prevent certain diseases;
• increase the productivity of animals;
• adsorb and rid the body of animals radionuclides, ammonia oxide
and carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals.
The practice has shown that regular use of zeolite increases the
In case of giving feed to cows increases:
• average daily milk yield to 5-8%;
• the safety of newborn calves to 10%;
• increase in live weight of offspring to 6-18%
In case of giving zeolite feed to the sheep increases:
• wool clip to 13%;
• the wool strength to 6-12%;
• multiple pregnancy of ewes to 11%
• live weight of offspring to 3-14%
In case of giving feed to pigs increases:
• preservation of piglets to 15-18%;
• offspring productivity to 8-10%;
In case of giving feed to all kinds of agricultural birds
• body weight to 5-10%;
• safety of livestock to 2%;
• hens egg-laying to 3-5%;
• decreases the eggs breakage to 3-5%;
As a deodorant of livestock premises:
• adding 250g of zeolite per 1 kgof litter destroys the odor for
• The litter humidity of 25% is achieved in 2 days term.
Physiological experiments showed notable positive effect of zeolite
on the digestibility of dry and organic substances of feed,
nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus absorption. Was revealed higher
bone density of tested animals in comparison with control.
The usage of zeolite has extremely beneficial effect as a
therapeutic agent for diarrhea that occurs in piglets during
weaning them from their mothers.
The experiments revealed that a week after the zeolite feeding
digestive processes are stabilized, increasing the total acidity.
Zeolite for natural and waste waters
Zeolite from Sokirnyanskyy deposit with high content of
clinoptilolite is most suitable for potable, technological and
waste water purification, pre-treatment in water systems of power
plants of all types.
Ammonia nitrogen is particularly harmful in the wastewaters, the
excess of the concentration limits of which is equivalent to the
presence of a deadly poison to all alive, including for fish. To
preserve fish resources, Japanspends from 2400 to 4800 tones of
zeolites per year for its dispersal in the coastal territories of
ocean, where the fish is spawning. Thus, $ 0.5 million is
"released" in the ocean every year and it pays its cost.
Cleaning of agricultural and industrial effluents and emissions
into the atmosphere - one of the most important zeolites usages in
Data on ion-exchange properties of clinoptilolite show that they
can be used for concentration and separation of large cations of
alkaline, alkali-earth and some non-ferrous metals.
Zeolites are applied:
• In potable and industrial water systems;
• In the water treatment for heat and power companies (the previous
purification of water);
• In the treatment and purification of waste water;
• In the treatment and purification of biologically treated urban
• At the previous clean-up in ion-exchange cycles of treatment.
Zeolite works successfully when it is required:
• Removal of heavy metals from industrial effluent using zeolites
• Removal of viruses, cyanides, trichlorethylene and emulsified oil
• Removal of fluoride
• Removal of phenol
• Removal of tall oil and amines
• Cleaning of liquid radioactive waste (RW) zeolites
The material is an effective load for single-layer and multilayer
Increased porosity (26-40%) adds high hydrodynamic characteristics
of the material. Dirt holding capacity of filter allows you, in
comparison with sand filling, increase of filter cycle at 6-12
times – what was demonstrated by the tests. This makes it possible
to save considerably on the washing water in the electricity during
washing. In this case, the impositions of load wash waters for a
three years period in no higher than 10% of the volume.
In addition, zeolite, being a natural ion-exchange, allows you to
combine the processes of adsorption and filtration. For example,
the capacity of ion ammonium Nh4 + is, on average, 700 mg.ekv. /
kg, and is provides sorption of metal cations Cs + - Rb + - K + -
Ba2 + - Sr + - Na + - Ca2 + - Fe3 + - Al3 + - Mg2 + - Li +. Zeolite
will selectively sorb radionuclides Sr90, Cs137, Co60, Ca45, Cr51
in solutions with high content of other cations. At the process of
work can be reduced pollution of ion exchange resins, increasing
In this case, the low cost of natural zeolites determines the
possibility of their use in sorption processes, without involving
the regeneration of the resin.
The material can be regenerated
Zeolite in dry mixtures and building materials.
Zeolite is used as an active mineral supplement in the manufacture
of dry mixes, cements, concrete solutions, foam and aerated
The product is made from high quality natural zeolites and is
designed for usage in the manufacture of building materials.
Can be applied:
• to add into the dry mixtures, concrete with aim to save the
cement and reduce cracking of concrete;
• as a filler of concrete solutions, as zeolite is not caking, thus
eliminating the usage of anti-caking agent;
• to produce high-strength concrete;
• as a lime-zeolite binder component for autoclave and without
autoclave silicate concrete;
• as a binder component and the concretes made on its base;
• in the production of calcium silicate bricks;
• for the production of dry mixes, including for the production of
In the production of cement, dry mix, aerated and foam concrete:
• shortening the duration of stiffening - beginning for 1.5 hour
and the end for 3 hours.
• increases the specific surface to 800-1900 m2/t.
• increases grade of cement for 30-40 units.
A mixture of cement and zeolite is used for the production of
high-strength concrete in a ratio of 19:1 - 6:1. This allows us to
obtain concrete with greater compression resistance than that of
Partial replacement of cement by 15-20% zeolite allows to get
cement of marks 400, 500, pozzolatic Portland cement 300 with a
reduced time of the beginning and end of the stiffening. Zeolites
are also used as an active mineral supplement and binder component
for silicate concrete and as gypsum cement pozzolatic binder
component and concretes based on them. Zeolites can be used in
cement slurries, they also are widely used in the equipment of oil
and gas wells.
Transcarpathian zeolites, being aluminosilicates of alkaline and
alkali-earth metals are active mineral supplements in the
manufacture of concrete marks with strength 100-400. Inthis case,
the introduction of the zeolite in optimal amounts to the concrete
can reduce cement consumption for 50 kgper 1 cubic meterof concrete
with maintenance the concrete mark with its strength.
The usage of ground zeolite as an active mineral supplement is
agreed by State Construction Committee of Ukraine
Scientific-investigational center of State Construction Committee
of Ukraine studied the usage of zeolites as fillers for sealing
Kiev Civil Engineering Institute studied the possibility of ground
zeolite usage in the production of acid slag binders, dry plaster
Zeolite in the production of cement, concrete, foam and aerated
Since ancient times, natural zeolites have been used in
construction, mainly as a piece of stone.
Back in the 70's the majority of mined in Western Europezeolites
were used as building stone, insulating materials of low density
and in the process of the production of pozzolatic cement. Zeolites
are particularly well suited for the production of hydraulic
cements, chemical resistant for exposure, for example such as sea
water. As a piece of stone the zeolites have been used in Turkey.
In this area, however, competing, and perhaps the most competitive
materials are directly volcanic tuff.
Researches have shown that natural zeolites can be used in nuclear
power engineering because they are resistant to nuclear
degradation, and are cheaper than organic ion exchange resins.
Zeolites quickly react with the cement and glass, which allows you
to create more robust concrete storages for radioactive materials.
Considerable researches in this area were conducted in the last
15-20 years in countries such as USA, USSR, Canada, Bulgaria,
France, Germany, Britain, Japan.
For the production of high-strength concrete a mixture of cement
and additives, containing 60% of clinoptilolite and mordenite (at a
ratio of 19:1 - 6:1) is used. This allows us to obtain concrete
with greater resistance to compression than the Portland cement.
Experiments have shown that zeolites can be successfully used in
the manufacture of cement slurry during the equipment of oil and
gas wells. However, economically, the use or non-use of zeolites in
the above mentioned areas depends on the competition of local raw
materials in the field of production or on economic efficiency of
transporting a particular product.
Application of zeolite
|Agriculture:||Food processing industry:|
|animal breeding||food additives|
|pisciculture||Cleaning of food liquids|
|crop science||Atomic industry:|
|productionof organic fertilizers||captureandretentionof radionuclides|
|Ecology:||Constructionand Building Materials:|
|effluent clarification||heat insulation-sound proofing|
|purificationof waterbasins||lightweightparting walls|
|improvement and remediation of soil||reinforcersof cement|
|Elimination of damages caused bytransport facilities.||Fire resistant parting walls|
|Consumer Goods:||componentof binding mixtures|
|sachet||Prevention from caking of materials|
|cleaners, detergents||treatment of skindiseases|
|meansfor combating household pests||stomachmedications|
|fillersfor the cat and dog toilets||Water supply:|
|aquarium filters||purification of drinking water|
|Petrochemicals:||clearingof circulating water|
|desaltingand dehydration of oil||Chemicaland Gas Industry:|
|Pulp and paperindustry,filming materials|
production of paper, cardboard
|purificationand regeneration of power-producingoils;||dryingof gas;|
|Preparation of water forboilersandwater heaters||prolongatorof chemical reagents action|